** Grade Level Expectations**:

- Use appropriate tools and techniques to make observations and
gather data to determine how forces, including friction, act on an object
to change its position over time in relation to a fixed point of
reference.
- Calculate the average speed of a moving object, and distinguish
between instantaneous speed and average speed of an object.
- Create and interpret distance-time graphs for objects moving at
constant and nonconstant speeds.
- Predict the motion of an object given the magnitude and
direction of forces acting on it (net force).
- Investigate and demonstrate how unbalanced forces cause
acceleration (change in speed and/or direction of an object’s motion).
- Assess in writing the relationship between an object’s mass and
its inertia when at rest and in motion.
- Express mathematically how the mass of an object and the force
acting on it affect its acceleration.
- Design and conduct an experiment to determine how gravity and
friction (air resistance) affect a falling object.
- Illustrate how the circular motion of an object is caused by a
center-seeking force (centripetal force) resulting in the object’s
constant acceleration.

**Mr. Hand's 8 ^{th} Grade **