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Forces and Motion

Immune System






Alg HW


Sci HW


Chemistry Content Standards

Notes and Links


PS1.A:  Structure and Properties of Matter

Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. (MS-PS1-1)

Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it. (MS-PS1-3) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by MS-PS1-2.)

Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. (MS-PS1-4)

In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations. (MS-PS1-4)

Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals). (MS-PS1-1)

The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter. (MS-PS1-4)


Element Song


Dynamic Periodic Table


Periodic Table Notes

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Safety! Safety! Safety!



Chemistry Vocabulary


PS1.B:  Chemical Reactions

Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-3) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by MS-PS1-2.)



Some Chemical Reactions

Balancing Chemical Equations



Atomic Structure Notes




PS3.A:  Definitions of Energy

The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and the transfer of that thermal energy from one object to another. In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it refers to the energy transferred due to the temperature difference between two objects. (secondary to MS-PS1-4)

The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system’s material). The details of that relationship depend on the type of atom or molecule and the interactions among the atoms in the material. Temperature is not a direct measure of a system's total thermal energy. The total thermal energy (sometimes called the total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material.(secondary to MS-PS1-4)


What is Matter?


Fun = Table of Condiments That Periodically Go Bad



Performance Expectations

More Notes


Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures. MS-PS1-1

 Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.


Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include valence electrons and bonding energy, discussing the ionic nature of subunits of complex structures, or a complete description of all individual atoms in a complex molecule or extended structure is not required.


Asking Testable Questions

Virtual Chembook



Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact societyMS-PS1-3

 Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative information.


Losers, Takers and Kings

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of Mass


Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed. MS-PS1-4

 Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawing and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium.


Chem 101 Class Notes

Ionic Versus Covalent Bonding




Classifying Matter Chart

Grade Level Expectations:

  1. Describe the structure of the atom and its component parts.
  2. Explain that density (mass/volume) is a characteristic property that can be used to identify an element or substance.
  3. Compare and contrast the properties of a metal (aluminum, iron, etc.) with a nonmetal (oxygen, carbon, etc.)
  4. Illustrate the differences in the physical and chemical properties of a molecule and the individual atoms that bonded to form that molecule.
  5. Differentiate between a mixture and an element or compound and identify examples.
  6. Conduct and report on an investigation that uses physical means such as particle size, density, solubility and magnetism to separate substances in a mixture.
  7. Use the patterns in the Periodic Table to locate metals, semimetals and nonmetals and to predict the general characteristics of an element.

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"You know the oxygen masks on airplanes? I don't think there's really any oxygen. I think they're just to muffle the screams." - Rita Rudner


Q: what do you call the leader of a Chemistry gang?
A: The nucleus



"H2O is hot water, and CO2 is cold water."

"When you smell an odorless gas, it is probably carbon monoxide."

"A super saturated solution is one that holds more than it can hold."

These comments come from test papers and essays submitted to science and health teachers by elementary, junior high, high school, and college students and compiled at the NEA Life Sciences Symposium, Kansas City, Kansas. As the originator noted, "It is truly astonishing what weird science our young scholars can create under the pressures of time and grades." Please note that the original spelling has been left intact.

Mr. Hand's 8th Grade Science Site